The republic got into debt, and discharged its liabilities by conferring a monopoly upon its creditors at the expense of the Nike Outlet public at large. The activity of the Nike outlet online Italians in their money dealings, especially of the Lombards, who were understood to be Nike Shoes Outlet Florence, Genoa, Venice, and Coach handbags new 2012 Lucca, carried them into England in the thirteenth century.
Previously to their arrival in this country die Jews, who had settled here about the time of the Conquest, were noted for their christian louboutin pumps usurious practices in money-lending, by which they acquired enormous riches. But the expulsion of the Jews, in 1290, after a long series of persecutions, threw open the whole field of banking, in all its branches, to the Lombards, who established themselves in the city, and chiefly occupied that quarter which still bears their name, and which is still the chief seat of the banking interests, Lombard Nike outlet store Street. It appeal's that the Lombards enjoyed some valuable privileges, which were probably granted to them piumini Moncler in consideration of loans made to English monarchs. Their reputation for wealth was spread over the cheap Christian Louboutin whole of Europe and as they contrived, by their influence, Nike online store to command a large part of the trade of every country into which they penetrated, they soon, observes the historian of Coach handbags new 2012 Charles V.
, became masters of Christian Louboutin Shoes its cash. It is from them, Christian Louboutin Shoes and from their way of carrying on their business, that the very term" bank" was originally derived. It is taken from the Italian piumini Moncler word banco, christian louboutin pumps or bench, their transactions being conducted upon open benches Nike outlet store in the public market-places in Italy. Upon the failure of one of these bullion merchants, his bank was torn up and broken by the people hence comes the word bankrupt. A comparison between the method by which the business of bankingis now regulated in Nike outlet online the Nike online store city of London and the manner in which it was managed by the Lombards would be cheap Christian Louboutin productive of some highly ludicrous images. Instead of the close apartments, the well-fitted counters, iron safes, and smirk clerks, christian louboutin outlet there were the darkfeatured Lombards ranged behind christian louboutin outlet their low benches in the open streets, protected, perhaps, by occasional awnings, from the inclemency of the weather, and presenting a grotesque but not unpicturesque scene to the passerby. But this mode of transacting business was not peculiar to the Lombards.
It appears to have been a general custom amongst the merchants to meet, for the arrangement of bargains and settlement of accounts, in the open air. The ancient " burse" of London, according to Stowe and others, was an exposed space, without any shelter whatever and in an. dfgf57hdfhf4kagj
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